What We Do
We seek to support those voices acting against the conflict to go ‘viral’ within and outside the country – also bringing the South Sudanese diaspora into the online peacebuilding framework, bridging gaps of knowledge and awareness of social media mechanisms between those with access to technology and those without.
Combating hate speech through the Arts
Starring Silvano Yokwe, Doker Stephen, Winnie Joseph, Nicole Mariam
Produced by SKP South Sudan, Bilpam Studios with r0g_agency
Director Egily Hakim Egily
Written by Sam Lukudu
The South Sudan focused community peace building initiative #defyhatenow is proud to present DEFY – a short film on the perils of social media misuse.
DEFY tells the story of the fictional senior politician Honourable David’s newfound passion for
social media and the risks that come with using these platforms to spread propaganda and
The film shows an extreme yet potential example of how the misuse of social media can go
spectacularly awry, indicating that hate speech has no place in our political life, our
neighbourhoods and workplaces. The film aims to raise awareness and facilitate dialogue about
how we can work together in our communities to address these risks and mitigate further
incitement to violence arising through online hate speech.
South Sudan context
Learn more about DEFY
Hate Speech attacks a person or a group on the basis of race, religion, gender or sexual orientation. It is not freedom of speech. The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) requires states to prohibit Hate Speech”
Hate speech often shows up online, especially on social media. Facebook, Twitter, and Google each have its own specific definition of hate speech and their approaches to dealing with it are evolving. Facebook’s rules forbid bullying, harassment, and threatening language (although critics say it does not always enforce these rules properly). Twitter In 2015, the social media platform banned speech that could incite terrorism, or violence against people “on the basis of race, ethnicity, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, gender, gender identity, age, or disability.”
#Yalichecks #ThinkB4UClick Check the source and verify information Not everything you see online is true, not all sources of information are reliable always check twice and thrice if you may. Lies spread faster than the truth The whole world is listening to what you post, don’t share lies and misinformation, you cannot undo all your wrongs with one correction. Get context before you respond Out of context information has the ability to mislead many people. Small steps matter, you can have a larger impact The theme #ThinkB4UClick is a call to action, it aims at encouraging citizens to take small “hygienic” steps to mitigating hate speech and incitement to violence. We need to have more conversations on these issues at home, school and in the workplace. Each person has an obligation to use Social Media responsibly and utilize the online mechanisms for reporting hate speech and misinformation online. Let us work to have a #HateFreeSouthSudan
CRITICAL THINKING MODEL BE SKEPTICAL OF HEADLINES. False news stories often have catchy headlines in all caps with exclamation points. Read the entire article. LOOK CLOSELY AT THE URL. Compare the URL to established sources. A phony or look-alike URL with small changes may be a warning sign of fake news. DON’T BELIEVE A WORD UNTIL YOU CHECK FACTS AND SOURCES. Are the sources and facts credible? Investigate the source. Is it a source that you trust with a reputation for accuracy? INSPECT THE DATES. Fake news stories may contain timelines that make no sense, or event dates have been altered. CHECK THE EVIDENCE. Check the author’s sources to confirm accuracy. Lack of evidence or reliance on unnamed experts may indicate a false news story. SEARCH TO SEE WHO ELSE HAS COVERED THE STORY. Look at other reports. If no other news source is reporting the same story, it may indicate that the story is fake. If the story is reported by multiple sources you trust, it’s more likely to be true. CONSIDER THE IMAGES. Fake news stories often contain manipulated images or videos. Sometimes the photo may be authentic, but taken out of context. REVERSE IMAGE SEARCH. Reverse image search photos to see when they were first published and verify original sources. Upload image, click on camera icon or search by URL. https://images.google.com/ https://reverse.photos/ https://tineye.com/ SOME STORIES ARE INTENTIONALLY FAKE. Think critically about the stories you read, and only share news that you know to be credible. Are you being spun? Do you feel manipulated? Are other credible news outlets covering the story? Is this story a potential fake news story?
Dangerous Speech and its capacity to inspire violence to depend on its context: on who spreads it, how, to whom, and in what social and historical context. How can one know which speech is dangerous? One must make an educated, systematic guess. Consider the: Message > Speaker > Audience > Context > Medium of the speech Use these five variables to analyze the dangerousness of hate speech: • The degree of the speaker’s influence over an audience • The grievances or fears of the audience that can be cultivated by the speaker • Whether or not the speech act is understood as a call to violence • The social and historical context (such as previous episodes of violence) • Whether the means distributing the speech is also influential (such as when a media outlet is the sole broadcaster of information in that area) What are the hallmarks of Dangerous Speech? Dehumanization, or referring to people as insects, despised animals, bacteria, or cancer. This can make violence seem acceptable. Accusation in a mirror: Tell people that they face a mortal threat from a disfavoured or minority group, which makes violence seem not just acceptable, but necessary. Counterspeech is any direct response to Dangerous Speech which seeks to undermine it. Violence may be prevented by interfering with Dangerous Speech in several ways: Inhibiting the speech
Limiting its dissemination
Undermining the credibility of the speaker The most direct way is to have a positive effect on the speaker, convincing him or her to stop speaking dangerously now and in the future. It can also succeed by having an impact on the audience – communicating norms that make Dangerous Speech socially unacceptable or by ‘inoculating’ the audience against the speech so they are less easily influenced by it.
When it comes to hate speech, journalists and editors must pause and take the time to judge the potential impact of offensive, inflammatory content. This 5 point test, developed by the Ethical Journalism Network highlights questions in the gathering, preparation, and dissemination of news and helps place what is said and who is saying it in an ethical context.
1. STATUS OF THE SPEAKER How might their position influence their motives? Should they even be listened to or just ignored? 2. REACH OF THE SPEECH How far is the speech traveling? Is there a pattern of behavior? 3. GOALS OF THE SPEECH How does it benefit the speaker and their interests? Is it deliberately intended to cause harm to others? 4. THE CONTENT ITSELF Is the speech dangerous? Could it incite violence towards others? 5. SURROUNDING CLIMATE — SOCIAL / ECONOMIC / POLITICAL Who might be negatively affected? Is there a history of conflict or discrimination?
DON’T SENSATIONALISE! AVOID THE RUSH TO PUBLISH TAKE A MOMENT OF REFLECTION
HATE SPEECH AWARENESS
Hate speech, as defined by the Council of Europe, covers all forms of expression which spread, incite, promote or justify racial hatred, xenophobia, anti-Semitism or other forms of hatred based on intolerance, including: intolerance expressed by aggressive nationalism and ethnocentrism, discrimination and hostility against minorities, migrants and people of immigrant origin.
SOCIAL MEDIA GUIDELINES ON HATEFUL CONDUCT
You may not promote violence against or directly attack or threaten other people on the basis of: race • ethnicity • national origin • sexual orientation • gender • gender identity • religious affiliation • age • disability • or disease. Violent threats (direct or indirect): You may not make threats of violence or promote violence. What do you do if you see hate speech or dangerous speech online? Take a screenshot of potential hate speech on facebook, twitter, Whatsapp message or video including the comments as evidence. If you do respond to published comments that you may consider unfair always be accurate and professional. Remember to be authentic, constructive and respectful. Stay polite in tone and respectful of individuals’ opinions, especially when discussions become heated. Show proper consideration for other people’s privacy.
#ThinkB4UClick. Share Responsibly
Responsibility on social media is something many users overlook because you are hidden behind a screen. Behind every social media, a message is a person with a conviction, an intention, a certain mindset.
Are your personal convictions contributing to the betterment of society, your neighbor’s well-being, and your country? Are you standing up for justice, tolerance and understanding? Whenever you can make a stand, do so with compassion, and you will make a difference! How we respond to these messages changes us from passive consumers of technology to active and conscious creators and generators of change.
For every negative message you receive, send two positive messages.
You have the power. Use it wisely!